The k project

Inline assembler

All instructions of x86 processor can not be written in C language. So you will need to write some assembly. For only few instructions you can write it directly in your C code.

Basic syntax

Because of gcc options, you can not use asm keyword. You can use __asm__ instead. Add the keyword volatile to avoid compiler move your code for optimizations:

__asm__ volatile("instruction\n"

By default gcc uses AT&T assembly syntax (operation source, destination). Register names are prefixed by % and immediate operands by $.

__asm__ volatile("movw $0x10, %ax"); //put 16 in ax register, movw means mov word

Assembly with C expression operands

__asm__ volatile("instructions %[id]" : output_variables : input_variables : clobber);

The format for output and input is : [id] “constraint” (expression), where:

To avoid any confusion with registers names, they must be prefixed by %% instead of %.

Identifiers are not necessary, you can number the operands. In this case, you have to number them according to their order in both output and input lists.


__asm__ volatile("mov %0, %%eax": : "i"(42));

//result and new_angle are C variables:
__asm__ volatile ("fsinx %1,%0" : "=f" (result) : "f" (new_angle));

//with identifiers:
__asm__ volatile ("fsinx %[angle],%[output]"
                 : [output] "=f" (result)
                 : [angle] "f" (new_angle));